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git skill

文件

  • 提交单个文件

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    git commit <file> -m "your comment" 
    git pull
    git push
  • 提交多个文件,但是需要排除指定的文件

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    git add -u
    git reset -- main/dontcheckmein.txt
    然后进行commit、pull等操作

Git fork后的分支,更新最新的源代码

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sourcer为源项目代码
forker为fork之后的项目代码

1、找一个空的目录下签出 fork 后的代码
git clone https://github.com/sourcer/demo.git
查看 remote 信息
git remote -v

2、然后添加源项目地址(距离定义为 source)
git remote add source https://github.com/forker/demo.git
查看 remote 信息,可以看到新增两条信息
git remote -v

3、fetch 源项目
git fetch source

4、合并代码
git merge source/master

5、把合并最新的代码推送到你的fork项目上
git push origin master

比较文件,在不同版本的区别

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# uncommited file to HEAD
git diff <path>

# uncommited file to before last commit
git diff HEAD^ -- <path>

#last commit to before last commit
git diff HEAD^ HEAD -- <path>

#difference between HEAD and n-th grandparent
git diff HEAD~n HEAD -- <path>

#Another cool feature is whatchanged command
git whatchanged -- <path>

查看本地分支与远程分支的关联

git branch -vv

查看每一行是哪次提交最后修改的

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git blame filename 

列出文件的所有修改记录

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git log -p filename

删除远程仓库文件,但保留本地文件系统的文件

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# 文件
git rm --cached path/to/file
# 目录
git rm -r --cached path/to/directory

分支

查看分支对应的远程分支

git branch -vv

回滚远程分支

1、本地代码回滚到上一版本

git reset –hard HEAD~1

(或者回滚到指定版本commitId)

git reset –hard commitId

2、加入-f参数,强制提交,远程端将强制跟新到reset版本

git push -f

拉取远程分支

First, fetch the remote branches:

git fetch origin

Next, checkout the branch you want. In this case, the branch we want is called “branchxyz”.

git checkout -b branchxyz origin/branchxyz

新建分支

  • To create a new branch from a branch you do NOT have checked out:

    git branch new_branch from_branch

  • To create a new branch from the branch you DO have checked out:

    git branch new_branch

  • To create and check out a new branch from the branch you DO have checked out:

    git checkout -b new_branch

  • To create and check out a new branch from a branch you do NOT have checked out:

    git checkout -b new_branch from_branch

  • To rename a branch

    git branch -m old_name new_name

推送新分支到远程

在新建分支完成的前提下

  1. 将develop分支推送到远程

    git push origin new_branch:new_branch

  2. 建立本地至上游(远程)分支的链接

    git branch --set-upstream-to=origin/new_branch new_branch

删除分支

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// delete branch locally (如果要删除这个分支的话,需要跳转至其他分支后进行删除操作)
git branch -d localBranchName

// delete branch remotely
git push origin --delete remoteBranchName

//If someone else has already deleted the branch, you just do below
git fetch -p

重命名分支

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git branch -m new-branch-name

stash

在Git中,stash命令用于暂存当前未提交的代码修改,以便在后续时刻再次应用它们。它可以暂存已修改但还未添加到暂存区的文件,也可以暂存已经添加到暂存区但还未提交的文件。

以下是stash命令的使用方式:

  1. 暂存当前修改:(这个命令将当前的修改暂存起来,让你的工作目录变成干净的状态。)

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    git stash
  2. 恢复暂存的修改:

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    git stash apply

    这个命令将之前暂存的修改应用到当前分支上。如果你有多个stash,可以使用git stash apply stash@{n}来指定恢复某个特定的stash。

  3. 删除stash:

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    git stash drop

    这个命令会删除最近的一个stash。

  4. 列出所有stash:

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    git stash list
  5. 应用并删除stash:

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    git stash pop

    这个命令相当于git stash applygit stash drop的组合,它会将最近的一个stash应用到当前分支,并将其删除。

  6. 暂存特定的文件:

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    git stash push path/to/file

    这个命令可以将指定的文件暂存起来,而不是暂存整个工作目录。

  7. 给stash添加描述:

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    git stash save "stash message"

rebase

git rebase 用法详解与工作原理

How to Rebase a Fork

  1. 更新本地主分支(通常是 master 或 main): 获取原始仓库的最新更改并合并到你的本地主分支:

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    git checkout master  # 切换到你的本地主分支
    git pull upstream master # 从原始仓库拉取最新更改到本地主分支

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    git fetch upstream
  2. 切换到你的分支并进行 rebase: 切换到你的分支并将其 rebase 到主分支上:

    • 如果是新分支
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    git checkout <新分支>
    git rebase master # 将新分支 rebase 到你的本地主分支
    • 如果是已有分支
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    git checkout <已有分支>
    git rebase upstream/master
  3. 解决冲突(如果有): 如果在 rebase 过程中出现冲突,你需要手动解决冲突,然后使用 git add 标记为已解决。

    • 展示冲突代码(可省略)
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    git diff --name-only --diff-filter=U
    • 解决代码冲突
      • IDE手动解决
      • vimdiff解决
      • meld解决
    • 解决之后
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    git add .
    git commit -m "xxx"
    git rebase --continue
    • 终止rebase
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    git rebase --abort
  4. 推送更改到远程仓库: 推送你的更改到远程仓库:

    • 如果是新分支
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    git push origin <分支> --force  # 强制推送到你的 fork 仓库的新分支上

    git push -f origin <分支>

    请注意:使用 --force 参数进行强制推送时,请确保你了解它的影响。它可能会覆盖远程分支的历史记录,因此务必小心操作。

    • 如果是已有分支
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    git push
  5. 创建 Pull Request: 在你的 fork 仓库中,从新分支创建一个 Pull Request(PR),将你的更改合并到原始仓库的目标分支

commit rule

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<type>(<scope>): <subject>

<body>

<footer>
  • Type

    You can use your own commit types, but here are the most common use cases:

    • feat: a new feature, or change to an existing feature.

    • fix: Fixing a bug or known issue in code.

    • test: Adding additional tests for existing features.

    • chore: Updating build tools, like webpack, gulp, ascripts, etc.

    • docs: Update to documentation like README, wiki, etc.

  • Scope

    The scope of the commit can be kept as granular as required and is bound to change based on the complexity of the project. If you are starting off a project, it might not seem necessary at the beginning, although, it is highly recommended as it makes you think twice and harder about the changes that you are about to push.

  • reference 7 Rules for Writing a Good Commit Message

squash/reword commit

  1. merge the last 3 commits into a single commit.

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    git rebase -i HEAD~3
  2. replace all those pick with squash (or simply s) apart from the first one.

    Note: pick or p will only use those commits, but squash or s will use them and combine them all together.

    The first commit is the one you will combine them into without losing your changes.

  3. After doing that, save the file and close it. Git will open up another editor where you can see the new commit message it generates for you.

    You can get rid of all of them and add your custom message:

    Or you can leave it as is. If you add a new commit message, save the file and close it.

  4. Pushing changes, You should run git push to add a new commit to the remote origin. If you have already pushed your commits, then you should force push them using the git push command with — force flag (suppose, the name of remote is origin, which is by default)

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    git push --force origin HEAD

中途如需终止rebase,运行 git rebase –abort

remote

fork remote

docs.github.com

初始化仓库

  1. List the current configured remote repository for your fork.

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    $ git remote -v
    > origin https://github.com/YOUR_USERNAME/YOUR_FORK.git (fetch)
    > origin https://github.com/YOUR_USERNAME/YOUR_FORK.git (push)
  2. Specify a new remote upstream repository that will be synced with the fork.

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    git remote add upstream https://github.com/ORIGINAL_OWNER/ORIGINAL_REPOSITORY.git
  3. Verify the new upstream repository you’ve specified for your fork.

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    $ git remote -v
    > origin https://github.com/YOUR_USERNAME/YOUR_FORK.git (fetch)
    > origin https://github.com/YOUR_USERNAME/YOUR_FORK.git (push)
    > upstream https://github.com/ORIGINAL_OWNER/ORIGINAL_REPOSITORY.git (fetch)
    > upstream https://github.com/ORIGINAL_OWNER/ORIGINAL_REPOSITORY.git (push)

同步代码

  1. Change the current working directory to your local project.

  2. Fetch the branches and their respective commits from the upstream repository. Commits to BRANCHNAME will be stored in the local branch upstream/BRANCHNAME.

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    $ git fetch upstream
    > remote: Counting objects: 75, done.
    > remote: Compressing objects: 100% (53/53), done.
    > remote: Total 62 (delta 27), reused 44 (delta 9)
    > Unpacking objects: 100% (62/62), done.
    > From https://github.com/ORIGINAL_OWNER/ORIGINAL_REPOSITORY
    > * [new branch] main -> upstream/main

    # 指定fetch某个分支
    git fetch <remote> <branch>
  3. Check out your fork’s local default branch - in this case, we use main.

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    $ git checkout main
    > Switched to branch 'main'
  4. Merge the changes from the upstream default branch - in this case, upstream/main - into your local default branch. This brings your fork’s default branch into sync with the upstream repository, without losing your local changes.

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    $ git merge upstream/main
    > Updating a422352..5fdff0f
    > Fast-forward
    > README | 9 -------
    > README.md | 7 ++++++
    > 2 files changed, 7 insertions(+), 9 deletions(-)
    > delete mode 100644 README
    > create mode 100644 README.md

    If your local branch didn’t have any unique commits, Git will perform a fast-forward. For more information, see Basic Branching and Merging in the Git documentation.

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    $ git merge upstream/main
    > Updating 34e91da..16c56ad
    > Fast-forward
    > README.md | 5 +++--
    > 1 file changed, 3 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-)

    If your local branch had unique commits, you may need to resolve conflicts. For more information, see “Addressing merge conflicts.”

submodule

对于项目中包含子项目的git项目

reference

https://www.git-scm.com/book/en/v2/Git-Tools-Submodules

https://git-scm.com/book/zh/v2/Git-%E5%B7%A5%E5%85%B7-%E5%AD%90%E6%A8%A1%E5%9D%97

  • 如何是首次克隆,初始化代码需要

    git clone --recurse-submodules https://github.com/chaconinc/MainProject

​ 或如果首次没有使用--recurse-submodules,那后面可以通过

git submodule initgit submodule update,进行子模块的拉取更新

  • 如何要对子模块的代码也用克隆地址

    1. git config -f .gitmodules -e # opens editor, update URLs for your forks

    2. git submodule sync

在已有项目添加子模块

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git submodule add https://xxx.git configserver

其它

合并策略

warning: 不建议在没有为偏离分支指定合并策略时执行pull操作。
您可以在执行下一次pull操作之前执行下面一条命令来抑制本消息:

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git config pull.rebase false # 合并(缺省策略)  
git config pull.rebase true # 变基
git config pull.ff only # 仅快进

您可以将 “git config” 替换为 “git config –global” 以便为所有仓库设置
缺省的配置项。您也可以在每次执行 pull 命令时添加 –rebase、–no-rebase,
或者 –ff-only 参数覆盖缺省设置。

推送本地离线项目到远程github

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mkdir my_project
cd my_project
touch .gitignore
git init
git add .
git commit -m "Initial commit"
git remote add origin youruser@yourserver.com:/path/to/my_project.git
git push origin master

更改https协议进行推送

如果之前是使用ssh协议进行推送,现改为http协议

  1. 查看当前Git项目的远程地址

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    git remote -v

    该命令会列出所有已配置的远程仓库地址,并显示它们的读取和写入访问URL。示例输出如下所示:

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    origin  https://github.com/username/repository.git (fetch)
    origin https://github.com/username/repository.git (push)

    其中,origin是远程仓库的名称,https://github.com/username/repository.git是远程仓库的地址,(fetch)(push)分别表示读取和写入访问URL。

  2. 将Git仓库的URL替换为HTTP协议的URL

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    git remote set-url origin http://gitlab.xxx.com/username/repository.git
  3. 然后使用以下命令进行Git push操作

后记:需要注意的是,使用HTTP协议进行Git push操作的速度可能会比使用SSH协议慢一些,因为HTTP协议需要建立TCP连接、发送HTTP请求、接收HTTP响应等过程。同时,HTTP协议的安全性也比SSH协议稍低,因此在安全性要求较高的情况下,建议使用SSH协议进行Git push操作。

Git修改.gitignore不生效

  • 在git中,如果想忽略某个文件,不让这个文件提交到版本库中,可以修改根目录中的.gitignore文件

    但有时候把某些目录或者文件加入忽略规则,发现并未生效

  • 未生效原因:.gitignore只能忽略那些原来没有被追踪(track)的文件,如果某些文件已经被纳入了版本管理中,则修改.gitignore是无效的

  • 解决方案:先把本地缓存删除(改变成未track状态),然后提交。

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git rm -r --cached <要忽略的具体文件或者目录> 或者 git rm -r --cached . 
git add .
git commit -m "update .gitignore"
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